George F. Campbell

The neophyte shipmodeller`s jackstay



Skylights

during the 18th century fitted over the poop deck with small fixed panes on top, sides and ends, Fig. 46A. The 19th century developed them with sloped tops, larger panes in hinge'up frames and iron or brass protection bars, Fig. 46B. Elaborate types on clipper and early steamships combined them with deck seats or companionways or fitted panes in sides and ends also.

Make the base block from wood. Frames can be built up either from hard cardboard or wood veneer. Lay main members first with transparent plastic sheet underneath and smaller frame on top. Or put plastic sheet neatly under smaller frame if any. Make the bars out of U-shaped bent wire. Bend over a band former of wood or metal for uniformity and press into holes drilled in the frames. Polished copper, varnished, looks businesslike.

Stern davits

to carry a boat are of wood pinned and glued. Brigs, schooners, sloops, etc. fitted them on top of the side rail capping Fig. 47A. Large ships fitted them to the outside of the bulwark and carried them thru the transom piece. They also had quarter boats (accident boats) from davits abreast the mizzen rigging. Fig. 47B.

Going into battle the usual practice of both contestants, to avoid flying splinters, was to set adrift all the davit hung boats (others too, very often) for all and sundry to use— a gentlemanly affair.

Hammock nettings

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A distinctive feature on warships and Indiamen is worthy of some comments. The nettings were arranged abreast'the gangways and on the poop and forecastle bulwarks and gunwales stretched over iron frames. Fig. 48A The gangway nettings were deeper than the others. Full of hammocks, they provided a good screen when in battle and the hammocks could also be hastily rammed into large shot holes. A wooden rail was fitted to the inside of gangway nettings. The iron frames were portable which accounts for their absence on many contemporary plans and models. Toward the end of the 19th century the nettings were covered on the outside with canvas screens, stiffened and painted so that they look almost solid like boards. In fact by the early 19th century they did become thin boarding which was permanent, Fig. 48B. Hammocks in the deeper nettings could be stowed full length at an angle or sometimes horizontally above one another. The shallower nettings would stow them doubled up or singly horizontally. The boarded up type was still referred to as nettings.

The thin boards became thicker and part of the actual bulwark forming overhanging shallow troughs with a sloped bottom, Fig. 48C. This was the final arrangement on sailing warships and training ships up to the 20th century. The overhanging trough was also a distinctive feature on the warships and raiders of the Civil War on vessels like the ALABAMA and KEARSAGE, Fig. 48C. In way of the side hung gunport doors the hammock troughs above were portable to give a complete opening. In bad weather a taut painted canvas cover was stretched along the top of the troughs and if you don't feel like making all the individual hammock bundles this is an easy way out. If you do show the bundles they should all be exactly spaced and sloped either all facing aft or all facing forward, or as was sometimes done, half facing aft and half forward.