George F. Campbell
The neophyte shipmodeller`s jackstay
First cement the CHEEKS to the flat surfaces formed on the lower mast head, 64A. Fit and place the TRESTLETREES and chocks between Fig. 64B. Next fit the CROSSTREES and the planking on the frame thus formed, Fig. 64C and 64D. Finally, set on the BOLSTERS which formed г well-rounded bed on which to set the shrouds over the trestletrees. Fig. 64E. The topmast was prevented from dropping through the hole in the top by means of a large wood or iron pin called the FID, wedged into a square heel in the heel of the topmast. Each end of the fid rested on a trestletree. Before stepping the mast on the model, try fitting the topmast and cap to test whether the joined mast will be in line as viewed from forward and the side. See Figs. 53D, E, F, and G for the shape of tops at various periods.
Fig. 65 shows the arrangement at the doublings of the topmast and topgallant mast, with trestle-trees and crosstrees as in the top, except that as there is no platform (or very rarely) the crosstrees don't have to be let in flush with the trestletrees, but to preserve their strength are only partially let in. Note that the crosstrees were originally each about the same length but with the introduction of double topgallants (a little later than double topsails) the foremast crosstrees were made shorter than the others in the same way as the top itself became more triangular in form. About this time also spreaders were introduced which were bolted across the tops of the crosstrees at an angle pointing towards the mast. The spreaders had cleats like the dolphin striker to take the long length of the backstays and prevent their whipping about as well as giving extra spread towards the masthead. The spreaders were usually iron angles or bars towards the end of the 19th century. Figs. 65A & B. The topgallant shrouds and futtocks were usually all one rope on old ships and were lashed to bars across the гор of the topmast shroud, Fig. 65A. From the middle 19th century there were usually short rope strops on iron rods shackled to a band around the mast below and finishing with a circular eye or small deadeye which had lanyards to a similar fitting on the end of the topgallant shrouds. Deadeyes were not so common as the bullseyes here.
RIGGING THE SQUARE SAIL MODEL — SEQUENCE. Up to now we have stewed over the making of parts of rigging. Now let us consider the assembly of these parts on a square-rigged vessel. Experienced modellers agree that the best order in which to rig a model is the same order in which the ship was rigged — mast by mast upwards starting with the mizzen, the yards being set on last. Certain carpentry such as making and fitting the tops and topmast crosstrees can be done off the ship but set them up progressively rather than as a "prefab" unit.
RIGGING LINES may be divided into two general types, standing rigging, and running rigging.
STANDING RIGGING is that rigging which supports the masts and yards. It is not often adjusted or run through blocks (pulleys) and hence was often tarred to preserve it. Diameter varied according to the load carried.
RUNNING RIGGING is rigging which runs through blocks and is used mostly for adjusting sails to the wind. It is often handled and is therefore used in its natural condition. Stain it with coffee or burnt umber (japan color) diluted with turpentine.
The BOWSPRIT mounts through the bulwark or sometimes into the hull below the deck. Fig. 66A & B. In the latter case you must drill a hole into the end grain of the hull. Start with a small pilot hole (about 3/32" pilot drill for a 1/4" hole, say) then complete with the full-sized drill. A little overside will allow for adjustment of the spar correctable with little wedges.
Having drilled the mast holes, place the LOWER MASTS, align them, then proceed with the rigging of bobstays, bowsprit shrouds and mast shrouds and lower stays.